This study correlates computational predictions with in vivo and in vitro experimental results of inhaled fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) transport, dissemination, and deposition in the human respiratory airways. Epidemiological studies suggest that workplace exposure to anthropogenic pollutant PMs is a risk factor for increased susceptibility to acute bronchopulmonary illnesses. However, investigations on detailed human inhalation and PM transport processes are restrictive from time, cost, and ethical perspectives. Computational simulation based on the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model was employed to quantify the risks associated with workplace exposure of these PMs. Here, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of PMs of carbon black (CB) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) from wire-cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM), with mass median aerodynamic diameter (CMAD) in the range of 1 nm to 1000 nm, were used as input parameters of MPPD. Additionally, it mimicked occupational workers’ age, body mass index, and oronasal-combinational nose and mouth breathing exposure time. The deposition results were compared with several vivo and in vitro experimental data reported in the literature, and satisfactory agreements were found. For example, a total lung dose of CB-PMs of 100 nm is the highest (28%), while a 380 nm dose is the lowest (15%). Afterward, deposition increases with particle size, reaching 26% for 1000 nm. In the case of WEDM-UFPs, about 98% of all 1.0 nm inhaled particles remain in the lung. Subsequently, the deposition dose decreases with the particle size and reaches up to 28% for 100 nm particles. Approximately 51% of deposited WEDM-UFPs are of CMAD ≤ 5 nm. The images of lung geometry also observed the maximum deposited mass and mass flux rate in the head, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary airways.


This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


Nature Environment and Pollution Technology

Date of publication

Spring 2023



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