The California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) and the Virtual Environment Grocery Store (VEGS) use list learning and recognition tasks to assess episodic memory. This study aims to: (1) Replicate prior construct validity results among a new sample of young adults and healthy older adults; (2) Extend this work to a clinical sample of older adults with a neurocognitive diagnosis; (3) Compare CVLT-II and VEGS performance among these groups; and (4) Validate the independence of CVLT and VEGS episodic memory performance measures from executive functioning performance measures. Typically developing young adults (n = 53) and older adults (n = 85), as well as older adults with a neurocognitive diagnosis (n = 18), were administered the CVLT-II, VEGS, and D-KEFS CWIT. Results found that (1) the relationship of the VEGS and CVLT-II measures was highly correlated on all variables, (2) compared to the CVLT-II, participants (particularly older adults) recalled fewer items on the VEGS, and (3) the CVLT-II and VEGS were generally independent of D-KEFS CWIT. It appeared that the VEGS may be more difficult than the CVLT-II, possibly reflecting the word length effect. Performance may have also been impacted by the presence of everyday distractors in the virtual environment.


Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).



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Summer 7-31-2022



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