Using energy harvesting to convert ambient vibrations efficiently to electrical energy has become a worthy concept in recent years. Nevertheless, the low frequencies of the ambient vibrations cannot be effectively converted to power using traditional harvesters. Therefore, a frequency up-conversion harvester is presented to convert the low-frequency vibrations to high-frequency vibrations utilizing magnetic coupling. The presented harvester consists of a low-frequency beam (LFB) and a high-frequency beam (HFB) with identical tip magnets facing each other at the same polarity. The HFB, fully covered by a piezoelectric strip, is utilized for voltage generation. The dynamic behavior of the system and the corresponding generated voltage signal has been investigated by modeling the system as a two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) lumped-parameter model. A threshold distance of 15 mm that divides the system into a monostable regime with a weak magnetic coupling and a bistable regime with a strong magnetic coupling was revealed in the static analysis of the system. Hardening and softening behaviors were reported at the low frequency range for the mono and bistable regimes, respectively. In addition, a combined nonlinear hardening and softening behavior was captured for low frequencies at the threshold distance. Furthermore, a (Formula presented.) increment was achieved in the generated voltage at the threshold compared to the monostable regime, and the maximum generated voltage was found to be in the bistable regime. The simulated results were validated experimentally. Moreover, the effect of the external resistance was investigated, and a 2 MΩ resistance was found to be optimal for maximizing the generated power. It was found that frequency up-converting based on magnetic nonlinearity can effectively scavenge energy from low-frequency external vibrations.


© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).



Date of publication

Spring 1-19-2023



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