Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have enabled the development of functional biomaterials with surface properties that reduce the rate of the device rejection in injectable and implantable biomaterials. In addition, the surface of biomaterials can be functionalized with macromolecules for stimuli-responsive purposes to improve the efficacy and effectiveness in drug release applications. Furthermore, macromolecule-grafted surfaces exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure that mimics nanotextured surfaces for the promotion of cellular responses in tissue engineering. Owing to these unique properties, this review focuses on the grafting of macromolecules on the surfaces of various biomaterials (e.g., films, fibers, hydrogels, and etc.) to create nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces for biomedical applications, such as thrombosis prevention and wound healing. The macromolecule-modified surfaces can be treated as a functional device that either passively inhibits adverse effects from injectable and implantable devices or actively delivers biological agents that are locally based on proper stimulation. In this review, several methods are discussed to enable the surface of biomaterials to be used for further grafting of macromolecules. In addition, we review surface-modified films (coatings) and fibers with respect to several biomedical applications. Our review provides a scientific update on the current achievements and future trends of nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces in biomedical applications.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Date of publication
Small, Madeline; Faglie, Addison; Craig, Alexandra J.; Pieper, Martha; Fernand Narcisse, Vivian E.; Neuenschwander, Pierre F.; and Chou, Shih-Feng, "Nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces for biomedical applications" (2018). Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 25.