Managerial coaching remains a widespread and popular organizational development tool applied across numerous industries to enhance critical workplace outcomes and employee attitudes. Research discoveries have linked managerial coaching to three important human resource development (HRD) workplace outcomes: role clarity, job satisfaction, and organization commitment, yet no studies to date have evaluated the temporal precedence within these relationships. This study sought to assess the predictive validity of the Employee Perceptions of Supervisor/Line Manager Coaching Behavior Measure managerial coaching scale (CBI; Ellinger et al., 2003), using a longitudinal design and following the testing of the causal hypothesized relationships framework proposed by Kenny (1975). Four hypotheses were evaluated across three dependent variable models (role clarity, job satisfaction, and organization commitment), using longitudinal data collected over two waves from full-time U.S. employees (n = 313). Time-lagged associations confirmed a statistically significant relationship between managerial coaching and all three dependent variables over time. Results also detected statistically significant cross-lagged effects in the role clarity and organization commitment models, highlighting a reciprocal relationship between managerial coaching behaviors and the two variables. However, only the reciprocal cross-lagged effect was statistically significant in the job satisfaction model. Findings suggest the predictive validity of the CBI scale for role clarity and organization commitment. Moreover, results indicate employee attitudes influenced managerial coaching behaviors over time across all three models, emphasizing the potential impact of employee attitudes on leadership effectiveness.

Date of publication

Summer 8-18-2022

Document Type

Dissertation (Local Only Access)



Persistent identifier


Committee members

Dr. Kim Nimon, Dr. Andrea Ellinger, Dr. Sewon Kim


Doctor of Philosophy in Human Resource Development