The purpose of this study was to compare the division of household labor (HL) across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and North America. I also examined the impact of gendered division of HL on stress, depression, and anxiety levels. As predicted, division of HL was more gendered in the Middle East than in North America. Also, as predicted, gendered division of household labor was associated with higher levels of psychological distress among women. Looking across regions, there was a moderate association between HL and psychological distress among Middle Eastern women. HL and childcare combined were strongly associated with higher levels of depression among working mothers in the MENA region. The association was very weak, yet significant, among women in North America. There was no correlation between HL and psychological distress among males.

Date of publication

Summer 7-15-2021

Document Type




Persistent identifier


Committee members

Amy Hayes, Ph.D, Bradley Green, Ph.D, Sarah Sass, Ph.D.


MS Clinical Psychology

Available for download on Thursday, August 24, 2023