Nanomaterials (NMs) have been increasingly used in a number of areas, including consumer products and nanomedicine. Target tissue dosimetry is important in the evaluation of safety, efficacy, and potential toxicity of NMs. Current evaluation of NM efficacy and safety involves the time-consuming collection of pharmacokinetic and toxicity data in animals and is usually completed one material at a time. This traditional approach no longer meets the demand of the explosive growth of NM-based products. There is an emerging need to develop methods that can help design safe and effective NMs in an efficient manner. In this review article, we critically evaluate existing studies on in vivo pharmacokinetic properties, in vitro cellular uptake and release and kinetic modeling, and whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling studies of different NMs. Methods on how to simulate in vitro cellular uptake and release kinetics and how to extrapolate cellular and tissue dosimetry of NMs from in vitro to in vivo via PBPK modeling are discussed. We also share our perspectives on the current challenges and future directions of in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, in vitro cellular uptake and kinetic modeling, and whole-body PBPK modeling studies for NMs. Finally, we propose a nanomaterial in vitro to in vivo extrapolation via physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (Nano-IVIVE-PBPK) framework for high-throughput screening of target cellular and tissue dosimetry as well as potential toxicity of different NMs in order to meet the demand of efficient evaluation of the safety, efficacy, and potential toxicity of a rapidly increasing number of NM-based products.


Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society. This publication is licensed under CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


ACS Publications

Date of publication

Spring 12-15-2022



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