The control of pain perceptions of surgical patients is an ongoing problem in trying to control the pain with enough narcotics while not giving too much to depress their respiratory status. Using narcotics increases the risks of several side effects which can negatively impact the patient’s recovery (Fu et. al., 2019). Perioperative music is a nonpharmacological method used to decrease the need for pain medication (Fu et. al, 2019; Kahloul et. al., 2016). The patient is in an anxiety state that causes a heightened state of arousal of the sympathetic system, which in turn releases catecholamines to act on the pain receptors and heighten the response. Music acts to modulate the response to increase the parasympathetic system causing relaxation and a decreased response to pain stimuli (Kahloul et. al., 2016).

The project aims to show that music is a viable non-pharmacological adjunct therapy while patients proceed through the surgical process. A thorough review of the extant literature found evidence that there is an improvement in the patient pain scores in patients who either listen to or participate in music therapy. There is a more than one-point drop in patient Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores across the articles. Some of the articles found a decrease in narcotic use while others showed no change (Bagle et al., 2023; Fu et al., 2019; Kakar et al., 2021; Kühlmann et al., 2018; Mondanaro et al., 2017; Patiyal et al., 2021; Wang et al., 2021).

The project is easy to implement and only requires access

Date of publication

Spring 4-21-2024

Document Type

MSN Capstone Project



Persistent identifier



Masters of Science in Nursing

Included in

Nursing Commons