Unless you have personally breastfed a newborn baby or tried to help a struggling breastfeeding mother, chances are you would think breastfeeding is not only natural but comes easily. Breastfeeding is indeed a natural progression following delivery; however, various things can play a role in the success of a mother and newborn baby trying to breastfeed. Issues such as feeding position, waking a sleepy newborn, mothers not recognizing newborn hunger cues, a full day of well-meaning visitors impeding skin-to-skin time with mom, or delayed feedings are just a handful. Sometimes, breastfeeding is so difficult that moms who want to breastfeed are willing to quit because it is too frustrating.

World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) started Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) in 1991 as a global program to improve nutritional health, neurological development, and the overall wellness and survival of women and children around the world (Baby- Friendly USA, 2024). The rationale for Baby-Friendly Ten Steps is that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for at least six months leads to greater health outcomes for mom & baby and lower rates of infant mortality (CDC, 2021). BFHI defines EBF as not feeding any food sources other than breastmilk (directly from the breast, hand-expressed, pumped, or donated expressed breastmilk), yet recognizes there are instances when breastfeeding is not possible, or supplementation (formula) for the infant is medically necessary (Baby-Friendly USA, 2024).

Research has repeatedly pointed to breastfeeding improving health and wellness of both women and children.

Date of publication

Spring 4-22-2024

Document Type

MSN Capstone Project



Persistent identifier



Masters in Nursing Education

Included in

Nursing Commons