Diabetes Mellitus II is a leading cause of death in the United States, imposing a significant healthcare cost. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020), one out of every ten Americans have been diagnosed with diabetes, with 90 to 95% of them having type 2 diabetes (T2d). Effective management T2d is crucial to prevent clinical complications, expensive medical care, and a diminished quality of life. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to severe medical complications including atherosclerotic cardiac cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and microvascular disease (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2021). The economic burden of diabetes complications amounted to $237 billion in 2017, approximately $730 per person in the US (CDC 2020).

Diabetes self-management (DSM) is centered on the primary goal and standard of care which is to mitigate diabetes-related complications by maintaining A1C levels below 7% (ADA, 2021). Diabetes self-management education (DSME) has been a crucial component of diabetes clinical management since the 1930s (Bartlett, 1986). It typically involves didactic presentations covering the skills and knowledge needed to make daily decisions and foster positive behavior changes. DSME strategies encompass a care plan, diabetic education, emotional support, and opportunities to seek guidance (CDC, 2020).

Presently, the health care system delivers diabetes management through one hour diabetes education sessions, usually conducted by a nurse. These sessions cover various aspects including exercise, nutrition, foot care, self-monitoring, blood glucose, smoking sensation, and medication regimes. However, despite the DSME efforts, only one out of eight Americans achieve their target A1C levels (Harris et al., 2010). This raises questions about the effectiveness of the distribution method and duration of diabetes education. The PICOT question developed is: Amongst adults with T2d (P), how does a 4-week evidence-based diabetes self-management education program (I), compared to a one-hour, in-person traditional diabetes education program (C), affect A1C values (O) within three months after the DSME (T).

Date of publication

Winter 12-8-2023

Document Type

MSN Capstone Project



Persistent identifier



Masters of Science in Nursing

*Capstone PP.pdf (6477 kB)
Impact of Evidence-Based Diabetes Self-Management Education on A1C Levels in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Included in

Nursing Commons