Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of an incivility simulation intervention and incivility educational module would increase nursing students’ perceived moral courage more than an incivility educational module alone.

Hypotheses: Nursing students’ moral courage scores would increase more in response to an incivility simulation intervention and educational module than for those who received the incivility educational module intervention alone.

Methods: The NLN Jeffries Simulation Theory framed the proposed intervention using a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test comparison group design. A convenience sample of 66 students was utilized from one university across two classes. The Moral Courage Scale for Physicians was administered to all participants before and after the interventions.

Results: Students that participated in an online educational module plus a simulation activity had a significant increase in pretest/post-test moral courage scores. An insufficient sample for the comparison group prohibited the ability to compare outcome measures for the intervention vs comparison groups.

Conclusion: Uncivil simulation interventions combined with an incivility educational module are useful for developing nursing students’ moral courage when faced with uncivil behaviors in the clinical environment.

Date of publication

Spring 5-3-2022

Document Type




Persistent identifier


Committee members

Dr. Barbara McAlister, Dr. Christine Gipson, Dr. Frank Dykes


Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing

Included in

Other Nursing Commons