Employee turnover costs billions of dollars for companies every year, and it has been increasing over the years. Multiple studies have explored the different antecedents that affect turnover intentions. However, there has been little focus on the effects of training opportunities on turnover intentions. This study examines the impacts of training opportunity on job satisfaction and turnover intention among the generation X and generation Y cohorts in the United States. A total of 252 respondents completed questionnaires that assessed the internal elements of the model among Amazon mturk workers. Data from the measurements of training opportunity, job satisfaction, and turnover intention supported the hypothesized model. Measurement invariance results between groups were discussed for the three-factor turnover intentions model. Latent mean analysis was conducted for the best fitting model. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that training opportunity was positively associated with turnover intentions and job satisfaction was negatively related to turnover intentions for generation Y. Training opportunity, and job satisfaction had a negative association to turnover intention for generation X. Implications to research, practice, and future research directions were discussed.

Date of publication

Summer 8-24-2021

Document Type




Persistent identifier


Committee members

Dr. Greg Wang, Dr. Paul Roberts, and Dr. Venugopal Gopalakrishna-Remani



Available for download on Friday, August 25, 2023