Unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) is concerned with employees’ engagement in unethical conduct for the benefit of the organization that is immoral and/or illegal. Research findings on motivators of UPB show some contradictory findings that need to be resolved. Considering the empirical findings that clan culture discourages unethical behavior while hierarchy culture encourages unethical behavior along with the contradicting empirical findings between affective commitment and UPB based on samples with different cultures, this study sought to empirically assess the contradictory findings in the literature by testing the structural invariance of affective organizational commitment on UPB based on the two organizational of cultures clan and hierarchy. Multi-group analysis of structural invariance (MASI) was chosen. Testing for structural invariance first required the establishment of metric measurement invariance. The study’s results confirmed metric measurement invariance. As hypothesized based on prior literature, structural noninvariance was found. Testing for partial structural invariance found a statistically significant positive path coefficient between affective commitment and UPB for the hierarchy culture while finding a statistically insignificant negative path coefficient for the clan culture. Implications to theory, research, and practice were discussed.

Date of publication

Fall 12-10-2018

Document Type




Persistent identifier


Committee members

Nimon, K., Reio, T. G., Roberts, P., & Wang, G. G.


Doctor of Philosophy in Human Resource Development