Managerial coaching remains a widespread and popular organizational development intervention applied across numerous industries to enhance critical workplace outcomes and employee attitudes, yet no studies to date have evaluated the temporal precedence within these relationships. This study sought to assess the predictive validity of the widely used Employee Perceptions of Supervisor/Line Manager Coaching Behavior Measure managerial coaching scale (CBI), employing a longitudinal design and following the testing of the causal hypothesized relationship framework. Three hypotheses were evaluated using three commonly associated variables with managerial coaching (role clarity, job satisfaction, and organization commitment), using longitudinal data collected over two waves from full-time US employees (n  =  313). The study followed a two-wave design, collecting data over two time points to test for longitudinal measurement invariance and three reciprocal cross-lagged models. Results detected statistically significant cross-lagged and reciprocal cross-lagged effects in the role clarity and organization commitment models, highlighting a reciprocal relationship between managerial coaching behaviors and the two variables. However, only the reciprocal cross-lagged effect was statistically significant in the job satisfaction model. Findings suggest the predictive validity of the CBI scale for role clarity and organization commitment. Moreover, results indicate employee attitudes influenced managerial coaching behaviors over time across all three models, emphasizing the potential impact of employee attitudes on leadership effectiveness. This study highlights the complex relationships between managerial coaching and workplace outcomes, offering nuanced insights for improved understanding.


© 2024 Stone, Nimon and Ellinger. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/



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