Objective: To determine if the presence of multiple factors during the third trimester of pregnancy would predict high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores.

Background: Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a debilitating but treatable disorder which affects almost 15% of women worldwide and is a family concern. PPD can have negative impacts on maternal-infant interactions. There is no consensus for optimal timing of screening and the applicability of those screening tools to multicultural populations.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 54 women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS), and a Health History Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, One-Way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data.

Results: Scores on all the three scales (PSS, EPDS, GSDS) were significantly higher in Black women whereas Hispanics had the lowest scores. Single women had higher stress scores than married women. EPDS and GSDS scores were significantly higher for those with a History of depression and Unwanted pregnancy increased the depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. PSS score, GSDS score, and history of depression turned out to be the significant predictors of PPD symptoms. However, only 2 out of 54 (3.7%) women scored above 13 on EPDS.

Conclusions: EPDS may not be the best predictive tool during the third trimester of pregnancy to screen for PPD in some populations. Combining multiple factors such as stress and sleep disturbances as reported by the participants may better predict risk for developing PPD.

Date of publication

Spring 5-14-2019

Document Type

Thesis (Local Only Access)



Persistent identifier


Committee members

Dr. Jimi Francis, Dr. William Sorensen, Dr. Premananda Indic, Dr. Shih Yu "Sylvia" Lee


Master of Science in Health Science