Breastfeeding initiation has been increasing to meet Healthy People 2020 goals. As breastfeeding initiation has increased, milk expression has increased. Consequently, storage of human milk has become more common. While it is reported anecdotally, there is no data available on the prevalence of infants refusing expressed, stored human milk. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of lactating women indicates 25% of infants offered expressed, stored human milk refused to consume it. Almost one-third of respondents (29%) reported that the stored milk had an “odd” color. For the women reporting the refusal, 95% of those described an “off” smell to the milk with 13% reporting a bad taste. Women discarded the “off” milk when infants refused it. The women often discarded the remaining stored milk, with one woman reporting discarding almost 9 gallons of expressed, stored milk. Additional study is needed to understand how to prevent discarding of human milk


This article is originally published in the Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering, under a Creative Commons 4.0 License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2018.08.00301



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Francis J, Dickton D. Feeding and refusal of expressed and stored human (FRESH) milk study - a short communication. J Nutr Health Food Eng. 2018;8(6):391‒393. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2018.08.00301



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