This study introduces a sophisticated sensor array engineered for comprehensive monitoring of water quality, thereby addressing the pressing need for effective environmental conservation and water resource management. The array encompasses sensors for nitrate, pH, and temperature, seamlessly integrated into a unified flexible platform capable of wireless data transmission for real-time monitoring applications. Employing potentiometric detection methods, the nitrate and pH sensors offer robust analytical capabilities, while the temperature sensor operates on resistive principles.

The nitrate sensor, constructed using a novel nanocomposite comprising poly(3-octyl-thiophene) (PoT) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), exhibits a sensitivity of -50 mV against every decade change in NO3- concentration, ensuring precise detection of nitrate levels in water. The pH sensor, incorporating polyaniline for pH detection, demonstrates a high sensitivity of -57.254 mV/pH, enabling accurate measurement of water acidity or alkalinity. Furthermore, the temperature sensor, featuring a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) layer, achieves exceptional accuracy with a robust R square value of 0.951 and a sensitivity of 2.75% per ˚C, facilitating reliable temperature monitoring in aquatic environments.

The sensor array's proficiency in rapid data collection and transmission facilitates efficient monitoring of water quality parameters, enabling timely intervention and mitigation measures. This technological advancement represents a significant milestone in environmental monitoring, providing a cost-effective and scalable solution for widespread deployment in water resource management initiatives. Moreover, the integration of wireless transmission capabilities enhances the array's versatility, enabling remote monitoring of water bodies and supporting data-driven decision-making processes. Additionally, the sensor array's compact design and robust construction render it suitable for deployment across various environmental settings, including freshwater bodies, wastewater treatment facilities, and agricultural runoff monitoring sites. Its capacity for autonomous operation over extended periods further enhances its utility in long-term environmental monitoring applications. Notably, the reference electrode, shared between the pH and nitrate sensors, has been optimized with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and a potassium chloride (KCl) saturated polyvinyl butyral (PVB) membrane so that it can sustain long-term measurements in the aquatic environment.

In summary, this study introduces a cutting-edge sensor array that merges nitrate, pH, and temperature sensors into a unified platform for comprehensive water quality monitoring. With its exceptional sensitivity, rapid data transmission capabilities, and scalability, the sensor array offers a versatile solution for addressing water quality challenges and advancing environmental conservation efforts.

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Committee members

Shawana Tabassum, Farah Deba, Alwathiqbellah Ibrahim


Master of Science

Available for download on Thursday, May 21, 2026