Species distribution models (SDMs) that use climate variables to make binary predictions are effective tools for niche prediction in current and future climate scenarios. In this study, a Hutchinson hypervolume is defined with temperature, humidity, air pressure, precipitation, and cloud cover climate vectors collected from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that were matched to mosquito presence and absence points extracted from NASA's citizen science platform called GLOBE Observer and the National Ecological Observatory Network. An 86% accurate Random Forest model that operates on binary classification was created to predict mosquito threat. Given a location and date input, the model produces a threat level based on the number of decision trees that vote for a presence label. The feature importance chart and regression show a positive, linear correlation between humidity and mosquito threat and between temperature and mosquito threat below a threshold of 28 °C. In accordance with the statistical analysis and ecological wisdom, high threat clusters in warm, humid regions and low threat clusters in cold, dry regions were found. With the model running on the cloud and within ArcGIS Dashboard, accurate and granular real-time threat level predictions can be made at any latitude and longitude. A device leveraging Global Positioning System (GPS) smartphone technology and the Internet of Things (IoT) to collect and analyze data on the edge was developed. The data from the edge device along with its respective date and location collected are automatically inputted into the aforementioned Random Forest model to provide users with a real-time threat level prediction. This inexpensive hardware can be used in developing countries that are threatened by vector-borne diseases or in remote areas without cloud connectivity. Such devices can be linked with citizen science mosquito data platforms to build training datasets for machine learning based SDMs.


Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



Date of publication

Spring 1-17-2022



Persistent identifier


Document Type


Included in

Engineering Commons