Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of conditions that increases the probability of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, and is very common worldwide. While the exact cause of MS has yet to be understood, there is evidence indicating the relationship between MS and the dysregulation of the immune system. The resultant biomarkers that are expressed in the process are gaining relevance in the early detection of related MS. However, sensing only a single analyte has its limitations because one analyte can be involved with various conditions. Thus, for MS, which generally results from the co-existence of multiple complications, a multi-analyte sensing platform is necessary for precise diagnosis. In this review, we summarize various types of biomarkers related to MS and the non-invasively accessible biofluids that are available for sensing. Then two types of widely used sensing platform, the electrochemical and optical, are discussed in terms of multimodal biosensing, figure-of-merit (FOM), sensitivity, and specificity for early diagnosis of MS. This provides a thorough insight into the current status of the available platforms and how the electrochemical and optical modalities can complement each other for a more reliable sensing platform for MS.


Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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Summer 7-12-2022



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