Plant-microbe interactions are critical for ecosystem functioning and driving rhizosphere processes. To fully understand the communication pathways between plants and rhizosphere microbes, it is crucial to measure the numerous processes that occur in the plant and the rhizosphere. The present review first provides an overview of how plants interact with their surrounding microbial communities, and in turn, are affected by them. Next, different optical biosensing technologies that elucidate the plant-microbe interactions and provide pathogenic detection are summarized. Currently, most of the biosensors used for detecting plant parameters or microbial communities in soil are centered around genetically encoded optical and electrochemical biosensors that are often not suitable for field applications. Such sensors require substantial effort and cost to develop and have their limitations. With a particular focus on the detection of root exudates and phytohormones under biotic and abiotic stress conditions, novel low-cost and in-situ biosensors must become available to plant scientists.


Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



Date of publication

Spring 1-12-2023



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