Protein cages found in nature have the ability to protect and develop new nanomaterials in order to enhance catalytic reactions. This is due to the ability of these organelle structures to mimic protein-based organelles such as Virus-Like Particles (VLPs). VLPs have the ability to not only resemble virus protein structures but to encapsulate enzymes while retaining their activity. This research examines the in vitro encapsulation withing the bacteriophage P22 derived VLP, and show that some enzymes may require a delay in encapsulation to allowed proper folding

and maturation before they can be encapsulated inside P22 as fully active enzymes. Exploring the usage of sequential expression strategy, where enzyme cargoes are first expressed, given time in order to allow them to fold, and later encapsulated by the expression of the P22 coat protein, altered enzymatic activities obtained in comparison to enzymes encapsulated in P22 VLPs using a simultaneous co-expression strategy. The strategy and results discussed here enhances important of considering the unique requirements and aspects of the enzymes prior encapsulation, and the potential routes that could provide solution for those that have been unable to produce active enzymes upon encapsulation

Date of publication

Summer 9-12-2022

Document Type




Persistent identifier


Committee members

Dustin Patterson, Ph.D; Rachel Mason, Ph.D; Jiyong Lee Ph.D


Masters in Chemistry