Research Consortium for Belizean Studies

Childhood Resiliency Effects from Schoolwide Treatment: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Krystal M. Hinerman
Darrall M. Hull
Demarquis Hayes
Marvin G. Powell
Sarah Ferguson
Emma I. Naslund-Hadley


The purpose of the Childhood Resiliency Effects from Schoolwide Treatment (CREST) Pilot was to implement a comprehensive school wide social and character development program aimed at decreasing violence among students and assisting students exposed to violence in Belize City. This one-year pilot program implemented portions of the Positive Action curriculum with a randomized controlled design with 13 intervention and 12 control primary schools in Belize City. The Positive Action curriculum was developed and revised by Carol Allred from 1977 to the present using continuous process monitoring and evaluation. The current intervention, although not used with the current population, has been found to be effective in significantly improving school performance and behavior in multi-ethnic and diverse samples from various regions in the United States. Positive effects occur more slowly in older children due to the resistance to change commonly experienced by older children. Early introduction of cognitive-behavioral training is essential if children in Belize are to be able to adapt their behavior in response to what they understand as negative outcomes when they do not adapt positively. Tables and figures are appended.